Coffee and its stimulating effects in human body

The word coffee originated from the word “Kaffa”, which is the region in Ethiopia from where the coffee beans were originated. Coffee is a bitter and dark coloured beverage which is mostly used as a morning brew. Coffee is actually the blend of various complex chemicals. According to a survey coffee is the most utilized food worldwide (Dórea & da Costa, 2005). Two main kinds of coffee exist including the Arabica and Robusta. For growing purpose Robusta coffee plant is more economical as it is resistant to the harsh conditions including high temperatures, humidity, diseases etc. Ethiopia on the other side is expensive due to its sensitivity, though this coffee is more liked worldwide owing to its flavor. With many benefits coffee has certain side effects aswell. It has been counted in the range of carcinogens in 1991 which was later proved wrong by showing that coffee is actually responsible for decreasing the risk of various cancer types(Cano-Marquina et al., 2013).

Coffee production

In the process of coffee production the seeds of cherries or berries from different plant species are collected when the green beans gain the dark red color. From the collected cherries the pulp is removed and seeds are dried. The fruit or pulp is removed through different processes including Wet process, dry process and semi dry process(Mussatto et al., 2011) . The processing method used effects the flavor of coffee. After the removal of pulp, seeds are dried and all the external layers of the seeds are removed. Seeds are then polished and cleaned.

Before the roasting of beans decaffeination is done in certain cases where the less caffeine content is required. Chemical solvents or carbon dioxide are used for the removal of caffeine. In order to get the decaffeinated label, 97% of the caffeine must be eliminated according to the regulations in US. Coffee beans are roasted on different degrees, like light, medium and dark roasting. Contrary to the common belief, the light roasted coffee beans are always rich in caffeine concentration as compared to the medium and dark roasted beans. The roasted coffee beans are then grounded and hot water is used for its brewing in order to produce the drink known as coffee. Bitterness, minute acidity and darkness in colour are the characteristics of coffee. Caffeine content in coffee is mainly responsible for the stimulating effect in humans. For the reduction of bitterness in coffee milk, sugar, creams etc have been in use(Cappelletti et al., 2015).

Concentration of nutrients.

· The black coffee is usually considered to be low in calories, as the normal cup has found to contain just 2 calories in it, though the range of caffeine in a normal cup varies from 30 mg to 170mg (Higdon and Frei, 2006).

· Polyphenols, such as chlorogenic acids, are the antioxidants present in coffee beans which are responsible for the removal of free radicals from the body. It has been proven that in the west coffee is the most big antioxidant source. Other researchers have shown that as compared to vegetables and fruits coffee provides more antioxidants. Polyphenols account 8% of the total composition of coffee (Doherty and Smith, 2004).

· Carbohydrates occupy the major portion of coffee which is 40–45 %. Proteins account 13 %, and lipids 20%

· Vitamin B2, B3 and B5 also constitute the minor portion of coffee in the range 11%, 2% and 6% respectively. Minute concentrations of manganese and potassium have also been found(van Dam and Hu, 2005).

Capable effects for human health coupled with coffee

· The caffeine content in the coffee acts as a stimulant which is responsible for boosting energy levels and decreasing the tiredness level. Caffeine works by blocking the neurotransmitters adenosine in the brain and this is how it enhances the functioning of brain because the concentration of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, increases(Mussatto et al., 2011).

· Reduction in the risk of liver cancer, gallstone disease and fatty liver disease are the benefits associated with coffee, as it has been proven by the meta analysis in 2017.

· Researchers in 2014 proved that type 2 diabetes rate can be decreased if the consumption of coffee is continued for long. Caffeine is also recommended as the supplement for fat burn.(Odegaard et al., 2008).

· The risk of Alzheimer’s disease has also been reduced in the regular caffeine consumers as compared to the nonconsumers(Cunha and Mendonça, 2010).

· The increased endurance level has been seen in the individuals who consume caffeine regularly(Kawachi et al., 1996). It also boosts the metabolic rate of body.

· Addictiveness is the main drawback of taking coffee as it also causes sleeplessness.

· Researchers have proven that if coffee is taken in excess it becomes responsible for digestive issues.

Cano-Marquina, A., J. Tarín and A. Cano, 2013. The impact of coffee on health. Maturitas, 75: 7–21.

Cappelletti, S., P. Daria, G. Sani and M. Aromatario, 2015. Caffeine: cognitive and physical performance enhancer or psychoactive drug? Current neuropharmacology, 13: 71–88.

Cunha, R. A. and A. d. Mendonça, 2010. Therapeutic opportunities for caffeine in Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. JAD, Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 20: 1–252.

Doherty, M. and P. M. Smith, 2004. Effects of caffeine ingestion on exercise testing: a meta-analysis. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 14: 626–646.

Higdon, J. V. and B. Frei, 2006. Coffee and health: a review of recent human research. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 46: 101–123.

Kawachi, I., W. C. Willett, G. A. Colditz, M. J. Stampfer and F. E. Speizer, 1996. A prospective study of coffee drinking and suicide in women. Archives of internal medicine, 156: 521–525.

Mussatto, S. I., E. M. Machado, S. Martins and J. A. Teixeira, 2011. Production, composition, and application of coffee and its industrial residues. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 4: 661.

Odegaard, A. O., M. A. Pereira, W. P. Koh, K. Arakawa, H. P. Lee and M. C. Yu, 2008. Coffee, tea, and incident type 2 diabetes: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 88: 979–985.

van Dam, R. M. and F. B. Hu, 2005. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Jama, 294: 97–104.